5. Battery-in-the-Loop Setup
Battery-in-the-Loop (BIL) is a powerful approach to develop and validate estimation and control algorithms in real-time over the actual battery cell rather than its model. This BIL test results in reduced development time and cost as it allows the iterative process of improving and correcting the algorithms in the early stages on actual hardware. The algorithms could range from open-loop battery state observers to closed-loop optimization and control strategies. The primary components of a BIL, as shown in Figure 1 below, are:
- a host computer to program test profiles and real-time data monitoring through the MITS Pro and Data Watcher software,
- the Arbin measurement system equipped with the Controller Area Network (CAN) ports,
- the Arbin LBT21024 with a programmable power supply,
- a lithium-ion battery cell positioned in a high-current cylindrical cell holder (maximum current of 200A) manufactured by Arbin,
- a dSPACE Control Desk software to supervise dSPACE simulator real-time data, and
- the embedded controller dSPACE MicroAutoBox-II, which provides a platform to test in real-time the design of control/estimation algorithms.
The BIL architecture relies on a CAN BUS connection between the battery (Arbin system) and dSPACE controller (ECU) to transmit the measured current, voltage, and temperature data.